3rd Training-through-Research Cruise

The 3rd Training through Research cruise of the RV Gelendzhik (June-July 1993) was focused on the investigations of the mud volcanism in the deepest part of the Black Sea and on the Mediterranean Ridge accretionary complex, as well as study of the shallow structure of the Eratosthenes Seamount in the easternmost Mediterranean.
ttr3 map

The cruise was sponsored by UNESCO, European Science Foundation and national founding organizations of the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain and Russia.

In the Black Sea, some mud volcanoes, including the TREDMAR mud volcano discovered during the 1st "Training through Research Cruise (1991), were studied in detail with the use of the MAK-1 deep-tow acoustic system, underwater TV and gravity corer. It was found that sliding of the bottom sediments is widespread in the area of the mud volcanoes. Enigmatic criss-cross lines were discovered in the vicinity of the MSU and Yuzhmorgeologiya mud volcanoes. Gas hydrate crystals were sampled from the TREDMAR mud volcano.

About twenty new mud domes were discovered on the Mediterranean Ridge, in the area of the Olimpi mud diapir field, and nine of them were checked by coring. Most of them are not mud diapirs but mud volcanoes with extensive mud flows on their slopes. The Olimpi and Prometheus 2 mud diapir fields were proven to be the single area that presumably extends further east- and westwards. Extensive gas and fluid seepages were recorded by the underwater TV on the Napoli Dome. The Cretaceous rock was found in the mud breccia from the Toronto Dome.

Interpretation of the newly obtained seismic data from the Eratosthenes Seamount gave the indication that this structural high is very active tectonically. Its northern slope underthrusts beneath the Cyprus margin while the southern slope is overthrust by the Levantine plate. The upper crustal level of the seamount is under tectonic extension and is cut by normal fault. The thickness of the Plio-Quaternary sediments on the seamount averages about 130 m. Circular holes interpreted to be pockmarks were found on the top of the seamount.

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cruise report
post-cruise meeting abstracts