Red deer

Rolf Langvatn og hjortMy involvement in red deer research started with my first post doc period in 1999. I was then invited by professor Nils Chr. Stenseth, the chair here at CEES, to work on the longterm monitoring data of professor Rolf Langvatn, at Norwegian Institute of Nature Research, Norway. Langvatn is the "grand old man" for red deer work in Norway - data collection goes back to 1965. The work has been mostly focused on analysing variation in demographic parameters such as body weight, ovulation rates and dates and sex ratios. Biostatistician Nigel G. Yoccoz has  been instrumental in this work.

Today, Rolf Langvatn has retired. Our former PhD student Vebjørn Veiberg has taken over as the "red deer monitoring person" in NINA-Trondheim. A main focus now is the GPS work. Leif Egil Loe has been very important for this work, now professor at NMBU. Inger Maren Rivrud and Erling Meisingset are currently the most important collaborators - but there are several more.

Pictures: Rolf Langvatn feeding two red deer at Songli research station, Orkdal municipality in Sør-Trøndelag county (Photo: Atle Mysterud).

Rolf Langvatn


Grazing study in Gloppen, Sogn og Fjordane

I initiated in 2006 a red deer grazing project in Gloppen, Sogn og Fjordane. We have established 7 exclosures (25 x 25 m) - 3 in Breim (now up and running) and 4 in Hyen. Fall 2008 we added 3 more exclosures - 2 more in Breim and 1 more in Hyen. My good botanist-friend Gunnar Austrheim is head of the field work. Local contacts to find suitable areas has been Knut Førde for Breim and Harald Kjær in Hyen - a great thank you!!!
Gunnar Austrheim in action
Gunnar Austrheim (left) inspecting what kind of plants are here today. Right - assistant for the day - some might better know him as the foremost moose researcher in Norway - Erling J. Solberg.
Atle Mysterud and fences
Myself wondering what to do with 10*120 kg of red deer fences. Now I have figured it out!

So far ended in this paper: Speed, J.D.M., Austrheim, G., Hester, A., Meisingset, E., Mysterud, A., Tremblay, J.-P., Øien, D.-I., and Solberg, E.J. 2014. General and specific responses of understory vegetation to cervid herbivory across a range of boreal forests. Oikos: in press.


Papers on red deer

50. Loe, L.E., Rivrud, I.M., Meisingset, E., Bø, S., Hamnes, M., Veiberg, V., and Mysterud, A. 2016. Timing of the hunting season as a tool to redistribute harvest of migratory deer across the landscape. European Journal of Wildlife Research 62: 315-323.

49. Rivrud, I.M., Bischof, R., Meisingset, E.L., Zimmermann, B., Loe, L.E., and Mysterud, A. 2016. Leave before it's too late: anthropogenic and environmental triggers of autumn migration in a hunted ungulate population. Ecology 97: 1058-1068.

48. Mysterud, A., Qviller, L., Meisingset, E.L., and Viljugrein, H. 2016. Parasite load and seasonal migration in red deer. Oecologia 180: 401-407.

47. Lone, K., Loe, L.E., Meisingset, E.L., Stamnes, I., and Mysterud, A. 2015. An adaptive behavioural response to hunting: surviving male red deer shift habitat at onset of the hunting season. Animal Behaviour 102: 127-138.

46. Speed, J.D.M., Austrheim, G., Hester, A., Meisingset, E., Mysterud, A., Tremblay, J.-P., Øien, D.-I., and Solberg, E.J. 2014. General and specific responses of understory vegetation to cervid herbivory across a range of boreal forests. Oikos: in press.

45. Meisingset, E.L., Loe, L.E., Brekkum, Ø., and Mysterud, A. 2014. Targeting mitigation efforts: the role of speed limit and road edge clearance for deer-vehicle collisions. Journal of Wildlife Management 78: 679-688. 

44. Lande, U.S., Loe, L.E., Skjærli, O.J., Meisingset, E.L., and Mysterud, A. 2014. The effect of agricultural land use practice on habitat selection of red deer. European Journal of Wildlife Research 60: 69-76.

43. Gautestad, A.O., and Mysterud, A. 2013. The Lévy flight foraging hypothesis: forgetting about memory may lead to false verification of Brownian motion. Movement Ecology 1:9. [link, pdf]

42. Gautestad, A.O., Loe, L.E., and Mysterud, A. 2013. Inferring spatial memory and spatiotemporal scaling from GPS data: comparing red deer Cervus elaphus movements with simulation models. Journal of Animal Ecology 82: 572-586. 

41. Rivrud, I.M., Sonkoly, K., Lehoczki, R., Csányi, S., Storvik, G.O., and Mysterud, A. 2013. Hunter selection and long term trend (1881-2008) of red deer trophy sizes in Hungary. Journal of Applied Ecology 50: 168-180.

40. Meisingset, E.L., Loe, L.E., Brekkum, Ø., Van Moorter, B., and Mysterud, A. 2013. Red deer habitat selection and movements in relation to roads. Journal of Wildlife Management 77: 181-191.

39. Skonhoft, A., Veiberg, V., Gauteplass, A., Olaussen, J.O., Meisingset, E.L., and Mysterud, A. 2013. Balancing cost and income in red deer management – a case study from Norway. Journal of Environmental Management 115: 179-188.

38. Mysterud, A., Bischof, R., Loe, L.E., Odden, J., and Linnell, J.D.C. 2012. Contrasting migration tendencies of sympatric red deer and roe deer suggest multiple causes of migration in ungulates. Ecosphere 3: e92. [pdf].

37. Bischof, R., Loe, L.E., Meisingset, E., Zimmermann, B., Van Moorter, B., and Mysterud, A. 2012. A migratory northern ungulate in the pursuit of spring: jumping or surfing the green wave? American Naturalist 180: 407-424. [pdf] [you may also read a nice News&Views article on our paper in Nature 490: 182-183 on "Animal migration: Catching the wave", also recommended paper on F1000]

36. Olaussen, J.O., and Mysterud, A. 2012. Red deer hunting – commercialising versus availability. European Journal of Wildlife Research 58: 597-607. [pdf]

35.  Loe, L.E., Bonenfant, C., Meisingset, E., and Mysterud, A. 2012. Effects of spatial scale and sample size in GPS-based species distribution models: are the best models trivial for red deer management? European Journal of Wildlife Research 58: 195-203.[pdf]

34. Mysterud, A., Loe, L.E., Zimmermann, B., Bischof, R., Veiberg, V., and Meisingset, E. 2011. Partial migration in expanding red deer populations at northern latitudes – a role for density dependence? Oikos 120: 1817-1825.[pdf]

33. Milner, J.M., Bonenfant, C., and Mysterud, A. 2011. Hunting bambi – evaluating the basis for selective harvesting of juveniles. European Journal of Wildlife Research 57: 565-574. [pdf]

32. Haanes, H., Røed, K.H., Mysterud, A., Langvatn, R., and Rosef, O. 2010. Consequences for genetic diversity and population performance of introducing continental red deer into the northern distribution range. Conservation Genetics 11: 1653-1665.  [pdf]

31. Mysterud, A., Askilsrud, H., Loe, L.E., and Veiberg, V. 2010. Spatial patterns of accumulated browsing and its relevance for management of red deer (Cervus elaphus). Wildlife Biology 16: 162-172. [pdf]

30. Mysterud, A., and Bischof, R. 2010. Can compensatory culling offset undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting? Journal of Animal Ecology 79: 148-160. [pdf]

29. Loe, L.E., Mysterud, A., Veiberg, V., and Langvatn, R. 2010. No evidence of juvenile body mass affecting dispersal in male red deer. Journal of Zoology 280: 84-91. [pdf]

28. Loe, L.E., Mysterud, A., Veiberg, V., and Langvatn, R. 2009. Negative density dependent emigration of males in an increasing red deer population. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 276: 2581-2587. [pdf]

27. Mysterud, A., Yoccoz, N.G., and Langvatn, R. 2009. Maturation trends in red deer females over 39 years in heavily harvested populations. Journal of Animal Ecology 78: 595-599. [pdf]

26. Martínez-Jauregui, M., San Miguel-Ayanz, A., Mysterud, A., Rodríguez-Vigal, C., Clutton-Brock, T., Langvatn, R. and Coulson, T. 2009. Are local weather, NDVI or NAO consistent determinants of female red deer weight across three contrasting European countries? Global Change Biology 15: 1727-1738. [pdf]

25. Godvik, I.M.R., Loe, L.E., Vik, J.O., Veiberg, V., Langvatn, R., and Mysterud, A. 2009. Temporal scales, trade-offs and functional responses in habitat selection of red deer. Ecology 90: 699-710. [pdf]

24. Skog, A., Zachos, F.E., Rueness, E.K, Feulner, P.D.G., Mysterud, A., Langvatn, R., Lorenzini, R., Hmwe, S.S., Lehoczky, I., Hartl, G.B., Stenseth, N.C., and Jakobsen, K. S. 2009. Phylogeography of  red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Europe. Journal of Biogeography 36: 66-77. Highlighted

23.  Mysterud, A., Bonenfant, C., Loe, L.E., Langvatn, R., Yoccoz, N.G., and Stenseth, N.C. 2008. Age-specific feeding cessation in male red deer during rut. Journal of Zoology 275: 407-412. [pdf] Highlighted

22. Mysterud, A., Bonenfant, C., Loe, L.E., Langvatn, R., Yoccoz, N.G., and Stenseth, N.C. 2008. The timing of male reproductive effort relative to female ovulation in a capital breeder. Journal of Animal Ecology 77: 469-477. [pdf]

21. Mysterud, A. Yoccoz, N.G., Langvatn, R., Pettorelli, N., and Stenseth, N.C. 2008. Hierarchical path analysis of deer responses to direct and indirect effects of climate in northern forest. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 363: 2359-2368. [pdf]

20. Veiberg, V., Loe, L.E., Mysterud, A., Solberg, E.J., Langvatn, R., and Stenseth, N.C. 2007. The ecology and evolution of tooth wear in red deer and moose. Oikos 116: 1805-1818. [pdf]

19. Mysterud, A., Meisingset, E.L., Veiberg, V., Langvatn, R., Solberg, E.J., Loe, L.E., and Stenseth, N.C. 2007. Monitoring population size of red deer: an evaluation of two types of census data from Norway. Wildlife Biology 13: 285-298. [pdf]

18. Milner, J., Bonenfant, C., Mysterud, A., Gaillard, J.-M., Csányi, S., and Stenseth, N.C. 2006. Temporal and spatial development of red deer harvesting in Europe - biological and cultural factors. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 721-734. [pdf]

17. Loe, L.E., Bonenfant, C., Langvatn, R., Mysterud, A., Veiberg, V., Stenseth, N.C. 2006. A poor set of teeth increases effect of harsh climate in red deer. Oecologia 147: 24-30. [pdf]

16. Pettorelli, N., Mysterud, A., Yoccoz, N.G., Langvatn, R., and Stenseth, N.C.  2005. Importance of climatological downscaling and plant phenology for red deer in heterogeneous landscapes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 272: 2357-2364. [pdf]

15. Mysterud, A., Meisingset, E., Langvatn, R., Yoccoz, N.G., and Stenseth, N.C. 2005. Climate-dependent allocation of resources to secondary sexual traits in red deer. Oikos 111: 245-252. [pdf]

14. Loe, L.E., Bonenfant, C., Mysterud, A., Langvatn, R., Gaillard, J.-M., Klein, F., Calenge, C., Ergon, T., Pettorelli, N., and Stenseth, N.C. 2005. Climate predictability and breeding phenology in red deer: timing and synchrony of rutting and calving in Norway and France. Journal of Animal Ecology 74: 579-588. [pdf]

13. Langvatn, R., Mysterud, A., and Stenseth, N.C. 2004. Relationships in red deer (Cervus elaphus) mandibles. Acta Theriologica 49: 527-542. [pdf]

12. Bonenfant, C., Loe, L.E., Mysterud, A., Langvatn, R., Stenseth, N.C., Gaillard, J.-M., and Klein, F. 2004. Multiple causes of sexual segregation in red deer: enlightenments from breeding phenology at high and low latitude. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 271: 883-892. [pdf]

11. Langvatn, R., Mysterud, A., Stenseth, N.C., and Yoccoz, N.G. 2004. Timing and synchrony of ovulation in red deer constrained by short northern summers. American Naturalist 163: 763-772. [pdf]

10. Mysterud, A. 2004. Temporal variation in the number of car-killed red deer Cervus elaphus in Norway. Wildlife Biology 10: 203-211. [pdf]

9. Loe, L.E., Meisingset, E., Mysterud, A., Langvatn, R., and Stenseth, N.C. 2004. Phenotypic and environmental correlates of tooth eruption in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Journal of Zoology 262: 83-89. [pdf]

8. Veiberg, V., Loe, L.E., Mysterud, A., Langvatn, R., and Stenseth, N.C. 2004. Social rank, feeding and winter weight loss in red deer: any evidence of interference competition? Oecologia 138: 135-142. [pdf]

7. Loe, L.E., Mysterud, A., Langvatn, R., and Stenseth, N.C. 2003. Decelerating and sex-dependent tooth wear in red deer. Oecologia 35: 346-353. [pdf]

6. Yoccoz, N.G., Mysterud, A., Langvatn, R., and Stenseth, N.C. 2002. Age- and density-dependent reproductive effort in male red deer. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 269: 1523-1528. [pdf]

5. Mysterud, A., Langvatn, R., Yoccoz, N.G., and Stenseth, N.C. 2002. Large-scale habitat variability, delayed density effects and red deer populations in Norway. Journal of Animal Ecology 71: 569-580. [pdf]

4. Mysterud, A., Langvatn, R., Yoccoz, N.G., and Stenseth, N.C. 2001. Plant phenology, migration and geographic variation in body weight of a large herbivore: the effect of a variable topography. Journal of Animal Ecology 70: 915-923. [pdf]

3. Mysterud, A., Stenseth, N.C., Yoccoz, N.G., Langvatn, R., and Steinheim, G. 2001. Nonlinear effects of large-scale climatic variability on wild and domestic herbivores. Nature 410: 1096-1099. [pdf]

2. Mysterud, A., Yoccoz, N.G., Stenseth, N.C., and Langvatn, R. 2001. Effects of age, sex, and density on body weight of Norwegian red deer: evidence of density-dependent senescence. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 268: 911-919. [pdf]

1. Mysterud, A., Yoccoz, N.G., Stenseth, N.C., and Langvatn, R. 2000. Relationships between sex ratio, climate and density in red deer: the importance of spatial scale. Journal of Animal Ecology 69: 959-974. [pdf]


Popular articles on red deer (in Norwegian)

Loe, L.E., Veiberg, V., Mysterud, A. & Langvatn, R. 2004. Sosial status hos hjort: "Hakkeorden" hos hjorten. Jeger, Hund & Våpen 11 (2): 62-65.

Meisingset, E.L., Rivrud, I.M., Loe, L.E., Zimmermann, B., Brekkum, Ø. & Mysterud, A. 2015. Hjortens områdebruk om høsten. Hjorteviltet 25: 101-103.

Mysterud, A. & Langvatn, R. 2001. Snørike vintre og høy bestandstetthet gir færre bukkekalver i hjortestammen. Jakt, Hund & Våpen 6 (8): 58-60.

Mysterud, A. & Langvatn, R. 2003. Variasjoner i kroppsvekt hos hjort på Vestlandet. Hjorteviltet 13: 72-76.

Mysterud, A. & Langvatn, R. 2003. Hjortebrunst - det koster å være kar. Jeger, Hund & Våpen 8 (10): 44-48.

Mysterud, A., Langvatn, R. & Stenseth, N.C. 2001. Hjorteeventyret på Vestlandet: hvilke konsekvenser får økende bestandstetthet og endringer i klimaet? I: Borgstrøm, R. (red.) Delrapport I. fra forskningsprogrammet Bruk og forvaltning av utmark. Vilt og ferskvannsfisk. Norges Forskningsråd, Oslo. s. 91-96.

Rivrud, I.M., Mysterud, A., Loe, L.E., Kleveland, K., Veiberg, V. og Langvatn, R. 2008. Her finner du hjorten! Jakt og Fiske 137 (4): 44-46.

Rivrud, I. M., Mysterud, A. & Meisingset, E. L. 2016. Jegerne påvirker hjortens trekk om høsten. Jakt og Fiske 145 (3), 52-55.