The theories underlying applied fields of study benefit from being application driven rather than following separate paths as teminological theory has been doing in recent years. By adopting the engineering approach of identifying problems and seeking solutions, significant advances have been made (...) (Sager 1990, p. 10, cited in Jacquemin 2005)


Name: Dan Michael Olsen Heggø
Phone: +4790207510
Email: d.m.heggo (a) (PGP BF59 BCC2, fingerprint B3A9 8DB5 C960 247A 4D44 F072 D89C 1A6F BF59 BCC2)


Se også Library terminology informally explained, ODLIS – Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science, Informationsordbogen (engelsk – dansk), Norsk-engelsk ordliste med bibliotektermer (ABM-utvikling 2005) og IFLA Multilingual Dictionary of Cataloguing Terms and Concepts (MulDiCat) (en rekke språk, ikke norsk) og ikke minst Library terminology informally explained.

Knowledge organization

The relation between a work and its subject matter. Aboutness is a concept that is central to the field of knowledge organization, and many authors have made significant contributions to the understanding of the nature of work-subject relations. (FRSAD)
Relasjonen mellom et verk og dets emneinnhold
access point
A name, term, code, etc., through which bibliographic or authority data is searched and identified. (FRAD, ICP)
Søkeinnganger er de elementene i de bibliografiske innførslene og autoritetsinnførslene som 1) sørger for sikker gjenfinning av bibliografiske innførsler og autoritetsinnførsler og de bibliografiske ressursene de beskriver, og 2) begrenser søkeresultatene. Søkeinnganger kan være kontrollerte eller ukontrollerte. (ICP 2009)
authority control
  • "The purpose of authority control is to ensure consistency in representing a value—a name of a person, a place name, or a term or code representing a subject—in the elements used as access points in information retrieval. For example, “World War, 1939-1945” has been established as an authorised subject heading in the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). When using LCSH, in cataloguing or indexing, all publications about World War II are assigned the established heading regardless of whether a publication refers to the war as the “European War, 1939-1945”, “Second World War”, “World War 2”, “World War II”, “WWII”, “World War Two”, or “2nd World War”. The synonymous expressions lead to the authorised heading." (IFLA 2010)
concept (noun)
  • A unit of thought, formed by mentally combining some or all of the characteristics of a concrete or abstract, real or imaginary object. Concepts exist in the mind as abstract entities independent of terms used to express them. [ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005]
  • Begreber er mentale repræsentationer af fænomener, f.eks. ting, processer, egen­skaber og oplevelser. Begreber klassificerer fænomener, de strukturerer og ordner verden for individer og grupper. Bag et givet begreb eller en given begrebs­op­fattelse ligger der altså nogle klassifikationsprincipper, der kan være bevidste eller ubevidste. (Hjørland 2008)
controlled vocabulary (noun)
prescribed list of terms, headings or codes, each representing a concept (ISO25964)
kontrollert vokabular
crosswalk (noun)
table of mappings between the concepts in two or more structured vocabularies (ISO25964)
document (noun)
  • While libraries tend to define documents based on physical entities – the most prominent instance of a document is a book – information science tends to abstract documents from their form. (Voß, Jacob 2013)
  • any resource that can be classified or indexed in order that the data or information in it may be retrieved (ISO25964)
  • Early definition based on function, not form: To be a document it must be preserved or recorded, intended to represent, to reconstruct, or to demonstrate a physical or conceptual phenomenon. (Briet 1951, p.7, trl. by Buckland 1997)
    – En stein i en elv er ikke et dokument, men en stein i et museum er det. Et dyr i naturen er ikke et dokument, men et dyr i en zoo er det. (Briet iflg. Aalberg & Hegna 2000)
  • Et verk, en gruppe verk eller en del av et verk i en hvilken som helst fysisk form, publisert, utgitt eller betraktet som en enhet; gir som sådan grunnlaget for en bibliografisk beskrivelse. (Inger Cathrine Spangen. Katalogiseringsregler : Anglo-American cataloguing rules, second edition / oversatt og bearbeidet for norske forhold ved Inger Cathrine Spangen. Norsk bibliotekforening, 1998. ISBN 82-90790-14-7.)
  • "Something that has a unitary and self-contained character; something that has independent or separate existence; an abstraction, ideal concept, object of thought, or transcendental object." (IFLA)
homograph (noun)
one of two or more words that are written in the same way, but have different meanings. Homographs are sometimes referred to as homonyms, although the latter term applies more broadly, as it also includes pairs of terms such as “weights” and “waits” in English or “mer” and “mère” in French, which sound the same although they are spelt differently. (ISO25964)
identifier (noun)
set of symbols, usually alphanumeric, designating a concept or a term or another entity for purposes of unique identification within a determined context or resource (ISO25964)
knowledge organization system (KOS)
Thesauri, subject headings lists, classification schemes, and other subject authority systems. Such systems have been referred to as “controlled vocabularies”, “structured vocabularies”, “concept schemes”, “encoding schemes”, and “knowledge organization systems” interchangeably depending on their function and structure as well as according to the communities that use them. [FRSAD]
mapping (noun)
relationship between a concept in one vocabulary and one or more concepts in another. A mapping generally has a direction. (ISO25964)
mapping el. kobling
map (verb)
establish relationships between the concepts of one vocabulary and those of another (ISO25964)
å mappe el. å koble
semantic relations
Relations between concepts or meanings (not between terms). In information retrieval the basic functions for semantic relations may be conceived as contributing to the increase of recall and precision. [Hjørland]
semantiske relasjoner
precision / recall
presisjon / fullstendighet


index term (noun)
term assigned to a document in the process of indexing (ISO25964)
indexing or subject indexing
intellectual analysis of the subject matter of a document to identify the concepts represented in it, and allocation of the corresponding index terms to allow the information to be retrieved (ISO25964)
intellektuell analyse av emneinnholdet i et dokument for å identifisere begrepene representert i dokumentet, og tilordne de tilhørende indekstermene.
repository or institutional repository or digital academic repository
online archive for collecting, preserving, and disseminating digital copies of the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution (Wikipedia)
institusjonelt arkiv? vitenarkiv? depot..
En type begrep(???)
subject heading
A word, group of words, or phrase used to identify the subject of a work. (IFLA 2012)
  • word or phrase used to label a concept (ISO25964)
  • In the tradionalist sense, a term is considered as the linguistic label of a concept. This dominant approach to termhood stems from the General Theory of Terminology which was elaborated by E. Wüster in the late 30s, in relation with the Vienna Circle (Felber 1984, cited in Jacquemin 2005)
ord eller frase brukt for å navngi et begrep
topical heading
A subject heading that represents a concept or object or an aspect of a main subject other than form, geographic place or time period. (IFLA 2012)
innholdsbeskrivende emneord?


classification system or classification scheme
  • A logical scheme for the arrangement of knowledge, usually by subject. [DCMI Glossary]
  • A category in the DDC formed on the basis of one or more characteristics and represented by a number. Classes explicitly provided in the tables and schedules are accompanied by a description consisting of a heading and often one or more notes. (Dewey glossary)
class number klassenummer
concept begrep
  • A generic term for all media capable of conveying, coding, and preserving knowledge. Documents may be books, journals, electronic resources, reports, sound recordings, motion pictures, etc. (Dewey glossary)
heading klassebetegnelse
index term
  • Term from the relative index?
registerterm eller indeksterm
  • Numerals, letters, and/or symbols used to represent the main and subordinate divisions of a classification scheme. (Dewey glossary)
relative index
  • The index to the DDC. It is called “Relative” because it shows the connection between subjects and the disciplines in which they appear. (Dewey glossary)

FRBR : entiteter i gruppe 1

  • "distinct intellectual or artistic creation." (IFLA 1998)
  • "the specific intellectual or artistic form that a work takes each time it is 'realized.'" (IFLA 1998)
  • "the physical embodiment of an expression of a work. As an entity, manifestation represents all the physical objects that bear the same characteristics, in respect to both intellectual content and physical form." (IFLA 1998)
  • ISBN is an example of an international manifestation identifier for text material. Only ~ 22 % (57 m) of WorldCat records (255 m) have an ISBN per 2014 (OCLC 2014).
  • GLIMIR is a new, universal manifestation identifier developed for WorldCat (OCLC 2012)
brukt for: bibliografisk enhet
  • "a single exemplar of a manifestation. The entity defined as item is a concrete entity." (IFLA 1998)
  • BIBSYS-DOKID. Skille mellom beholdning/eksemplar..