Adverb vs. Adverbial
Some Contrastive Observations
Mary sa at dette aldri/ofte hadde hendt før.
Han har i en årrekke arbeidet som lærer.
never/often happened before.
Mary said that this had never/often happened before.
For a number of years he has worked as a teacher.
AN OVERVIEW OF ADVERBIALS
ADJUNCTS can be obligatory or optional,
i.e. they may be part of the basic clause pattern or come in addition to
other clause elements. There may be several adjuncts in the same clause,
but only one obligatory one. They generally answer the questions where,
when, how, why.
DISJUNCTS are evaluative. They convey the speakers evaluation or judgement of something.
CONJUNCTS are text-organizers and connectors. They link the sentence to the context.
Disjuncts and conjuncts never form any grammatically obligatory part of the clause.
|Place adjunct||John works in Oslo. (location)
I’d like to go to New York. (direction)
Mary walked two miles. (distance)
|Time adjunct||Yesterday I worked for
hours. (def. time +duration)
Tom frequently goes there. (frequency)
|Specifies definite or indefinite time, duration or frequency.|
|Manner adjunct||Mary attacked her husband furiously.
Peter looked at his work with satisfaction.
|The way in which an action is performed|
|Instrument adjunct||He built the cabin with his own hands.|
|Means adjunct||We went by train.|
|Agent adjunct||The novel was written by Doris Lessing.||Only in passive sentences. Always by + NP|
|Degree adjunct||Mary dislikes grammar terribly.||Adds a degree specification of the verbal action|
|Reason adjunct||I couldn’t come because I was ill.|
|Purpose adjunct||They came (in order) to say good-bye.|
|Condition adjunct||If you’re interested you can read this book.|
|Concession adjunct||He always put on a clean shirt on Sunday mornings, though he never went to church.|
|Focusing adjunct||She hates focusing adjuncts in particular.||Focuses attention on some other constituent|
|Viewpoint adjunct||Theoretically, pigs might fly.||Can usually be rephrased: ‘from a ... point of view’|
|Respect adjunct||We thanked them for a lovely evening.||Other circumstances of the action – often abstract|
|Fact-evaluating disjunct||She was, unfortunately,
sentimental about Claude.
To my great relief the performance was well received.
Mary won’t co-operate, which makes things difficult.
|Conveys the speaker’s view of / opinion about a fact|
|Modal disjunct||Maybe he can do something.
They are obviously somewhere else.
|Modifies/specifies the truth value of what is being said|
|Subject-evaluating disjunct||Wisely, she spent the money.||Adds a comment on the subject referent|
|Style-evaluating disjunct||It was terrible, to put it
In other words, you told him to get out.
|The speaker’s comment on his way of expressing himself|
|Typical meanings of conjuncts: contrast, similarity, enumeration, addition, exemplification, cause-effect||However, that was not what
So you don’t want to join, then?
To conclude I will give a brief summary.
She was, moreover, a fatalist.
Similarly, when a reporter once questioned Lincoln in cryptic fashion, he refused to make any further statement.
|Connects the sentence to the preceding text, or functions as a text organizer|
1: Negation (clause negation will affect the adjunct, but not disjuncts and conjuncts):
Anyway, they fortunately moved to Bergen. (They moved
to Bergen, and that was fortunate.)
Anyway, they fortunately didn’t move to Bergen. (They didn't move to Bergen, and that was fortunate.)
2: Clefting (only adjuncts can be the focus of an it-cleft)
It was to Bergen that they moved.
*It was fortunately that they moved.
*It was anyway that they moved.
Adjuncts tend to occur in the same tone unit as the subject and the verb (particularly if they are in end position), while disjunct and conjuncts are often separated from the rest of the clause by means of tone unit boundaries, matched by commas in writing.
However, they didn't want to go to the cinema.
They didn't, however, want to go to the cinema.
I want you to behave naturally.
I want you to behave, naturally. - disjunct