( next lecture-adjectives/adverbs)
Major Clause Patterns
Syntactic functions: Subject (S), Verb (V), Direct Object (dO), Indirect Object (iO), Subject Predicative (sP), Object Predicative (oP), Adverbial (A)
Constituent / clause element: a word/phrase/clause that fulfils a syntactic function in a clause or a sentence
Basic clause patterns: the ways in which the different constituent types can be combined in a clause (minus optional constituents)
Valency: the number of constituents that are required in addition to the verb in order to form a grammatical sentence (one-place verb: verb + one constituent, two-place verb: verb + two constituents etc.)
Transitivity: a transitive verb requires a direct object to complete the sentence. The opposite is intransitive.
One-place verb: SV
I: SVdO (monotransitive verb)
SVsP (copular verb: ascriptive
ascriptive: the sP denotes a quality/property of the subject referent
equative: the sP refers to the same thing as the S, only with a different label. The verb is usually be, and could be replaced by an equals sign (=)
III: SVA (intransitive verb – obligatory adverbial)
I: SViOdO (di-transitive verb)
II: SVdOoP (complex transitive)
III: SVdOA (monotransitive verb – obligatory adverbial)
· The crisis in ambulance services is putting lives at risk.
· It’s bringing tears to my cheeks.
· They must keep the aircraft in continuous use.
A note on Adverbials (see further EGTU, ch. 10 - and hereis the handout):
Adjunct: Obligatory or optional. Denotes time, place, manner,
reason, condition, etc.
Disjunct: Always optional. The speaker’s comment on the content of the sentence, or on the truth of it (probably, maybe, certainly, as a matter of fact, frankly, in a way ...)
Conjunct: Always optional. Links sentences together (furthermore, however, secondly, to conclude ...)
Troublemaker I: postmodifier vs. object predicative
I have a basket full
of apples. The basket is full of apples
* The basket is full because I have it.
I filled the glass full. The glass became full.
The glass is full because I filled it.
Troublemaker II: direct object vs. subject predicative:
She felt a fool. She felt the material. She kissed a fool.
Troublemaker III: SViOdO vs. SVdOoP
He found her a good husband. (SViOdO - he
found a husband for her)
He found her a good wife. (most likely: SVdOoP - he thought she was a good wife)
I made David a meal. (SViOdO - I prepared
a meal for David)
I made David a success. (SVdOoP - I caused him to be a success)
Troublemaker IV: Delimiting constituents: postmodifier vs. adverbial
I know the bloke with
the beard in the corner over there.
We stationed the bloke with the beard in the corner over there.
He photographed the bloke with the beard in the corner over there.
- ambiguous; the picture was taken in the corner (adverbial)
or a picture was taken of the man in the corner (postmod)
Anticipatory subject (aS)(it/there) – the notional subject comes at the end of the clause
Anticipatory object (aO)
Free predicative (FP) - characterising the subject
Vocative (Voc) - calling the attention of the hearer
Oblique object - a prepositional phrase with roughly the same meaning as an object
Semantic roles of subjects:
Agent: Mary gave John a book.
Affected: A book was given to John.
Instrumental:The book made John happy.
Charaterized:The book was
Semantic roles of direct objects:
Affected: Peter burnt the toast.
Effected: Peter made us toast.
Eventive: Peter gave a shout.
Semantic role of indirect objects:
Recipient: Mary gave John a book.
Semantic role of subject and object predicatives:
The students were overwhelmed.
The students looked overwhelmed.
The students found grammar intriguing.