Some of the exercises contain more than what was covered by the lecture to show you some of the common and nice features of R. If you canâ€™t find the answer in the lecture slides or the help menus (or Google) I have also put out the solutions on the bottom of the page.

**Getting started**

- Calculate 10 times 3
- Make a variable x equal to 5
- Calculate 10 times x

**Matrix operations**

- Make the matrix A equal to

1 2 4 4

3 5 3 4

- Give A columns name by using the function
`colnames()`

- Add 3 to each element in the matrix and call this matrix B
- Add A and B. What do you get?
- Include a 5th column equal to [1,2] to your matrix A and call the new matrix D. Use the command
`cbind()`

- Get the third column of D.

**Dataframe**

- There are built-in data frames examples in R. One of them are called mtcars
- What does mtcars look like? If you write
`head(mtcars)`

you will only see the first 6 rows. - How big is the data frame? Use the function
`dim()`

or the functions`nrow()`

and`ncol()`

. - What is the cell value from the first row, second column of mtcars?
- Could you get the same value by using row and column names instead? Which names?

One of the big strengths of R is the easy and nice plotting functions. Here you can try some of them:

- Make a histogram of
`mpg(miles per gallon)`

in mtcars, use`hist()`

(hint: use the â€˜$â€™ sign to access mpg) - Make a histogram of mpg in mtcars with more breaks. (hint: see the available options for the
`hist()`

function with f1 or`?hist()`

. Hint2: â€˜breaks =â€™). - Make a boxplot of mpg in mtcars, use
`boxplot()`

. (To make a boxplot for each number of cylinders use:`boxplot(mtcars$mpg ~ mtcars$cyl)`

) - Make a scatterplot of mpg in mtcars using
`plot()`

- Plot horsepower (hp) versus mpg using plot (hint:
`plot(x, y)`

)

It is very important that you know how to read text files from your computer into R.First, get your current working directory by typing `getwd()`

and download `mydataframe.txt`

from here and save it in your current working directory (or you can just paste in the text in a new file which you create on your computer).

- Read the file into the object mydataframe using
`read.table(file = 'mydataframe.txt')`

- Inspect the dataframe by typing
`mydataframe`

. How does it look like? Can you spot what has gone wrong? (Everything has been put into a single column named V1) - The values are separated by a comma. Try importing with this in mind. How does it look like now? Is it still something wrong? (The numbers are separated into columns, but there are V1, V2 etc above the columns).
- We want to have â€˜treated1â€™, â€˜treated2â€™ etc. as the column names. How can you fix this?
- There is still one thing missing. How many columns are there in your dataframe? Use
`ncol()`

. We want to have 6 columns and use the â€˜geneâ€™ columns as the names of the rows. You can tell R which column to use as row names during import with with`row.names = 1`

. Try this.

Can you save the dataframe as tab separated text file?

**Getting started**

- Calculate 10 times 3

`10 * 3 `

`## [1] 30`

- Make a variable x equal to 5
- Calculate 10 times x

```
x <- 5
10 * x
```

`## [1] 50`

**Matrix operations**

- Make the matrix A equal to

1 2 4 4

3 5 3 4

```
A <- matrix(c(1, 2, 4, 4, 3, 5, 3, 4), ncol = 4, byrow = TRUE)
A
```

```
## [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4]
## [1,] 1 2 4 4
## [2,] 3 5 3 4
```

- Give A columns name by using the function
`colnames()`

```
colnames(A) <- c("col1", "col2", "col3", "col4")
A
```

```
## col1 col2 col3 col4
## [1,] 1 2 4 4
## [2,] 3 5 3 4
```

- Add 3 to each element in the matrix and call this matrix B

```
B <- A + 3
B
```

```
## col1 col2 col3 col4
## [1,] 4 5 7 7
## [2,] 6 8 6 7
```

- Add A and B. What do you get?

`A + B`

```
## col1 col2 col3 col4
## [1,] 5 7 11 11
## [2,] 9 13 9 11
```

- Include a 5th column equal to [1,2] to your matrix A and call the new matrix D. Use the command
`cbind()`

```
D <- cbind(A, c(1,2))
D
```

```
## col1 col2 col3 col4
## [1,] 1 2 4 4 1
## [2,] 3 5 3 4 2
```

- Get the third column of D.

`D[,3]`

`## [1] 4 3`

**Dataframe**

- There are built-in data frames examples in R. One of them are called mtcars
- What does mtcars look like? If you write
`head(mtcars)`

you will only see the first 6 rows.

`head(mtcars)`

```
## mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
## Mazda RX4 21.0 6 160 110 3.90 2.620 16.46 0 1 4 4
## Mazda RX4 Wag 21.0 6 160 110 3.90 2.875 17.02 0 1 4 4
## Datsun 710 22.8 4 108 93 3.85 2.320 18.61 1 1 4 1
## Hornet 4 Drive 21.4 6 258 110 3.08 3.215 19.44 1 0 3 1
## Hornet Sportabout 18.7 8 360 175 3.15 3.440 17.02 0 0 3 2
## Valiant 18.1 6 225 105 2.76 3.460 20.22 1 0 3 1
```

- How big is the data frame? Use the function
`dim()`

or the functions`nrow()`

and`ncol()`

.

`dim(mtcars)`

`## [1] 32 11`

`ncol(mtcars)`

`## [1] 11`

`nrow(mtcars)`

`## [1] 32`

- What is the cell value from the first row, second column of mtcars?

`mtcars[1,2]`

`## [1] 6`

- Could you get the same value by using row and column names instead? Which names?

`mtcars["Mazda RX4", "cyl"]`

`## [1] 6`

- Make a histogram of
`mpg(miles per gallon)`

in mtcars, use`hist()`

(hint: use the â€˜$â€™ sign to access mpg)

`hist(mtcars$mpg)`

- Make a histogram of mpg in mtcars with more breaks. (hint: see the available options for the
`hist()`

function with f1 or`?hist()`

. Hint2: â€˜breaks =â€™).

`hist(mtcars$mpg, breaks = 20)`

- Make a boxplot of mpg in mtcars, use
`boxplot()`

. (To make a boxplot for each number of cylinders use:`boxplot(mtcars$mpg ~ mtcars$cyl)`

)

`boxplot(mtcars$mpg)`

`boxplot(mtcars$mpg ~ mtcars$cyl)`

- Make a scatterplot of mpg in mtcars using
`plot()`

`plot(mtcars$mpg)`