$$\newcommand{\half}{\frac{1}{2}} \newcommand{\halfi}{{1/2}} \newcommand{\tp}{\thinspace .} \newcommand{\uex}{{u_{\small\mbox{e}}}} \newcommand{\Aex}{{A_{\small\mbox{e}}}} \newcommand{\normalvec}{\boldsymbol{n}} \newcommand{\Oof}[1]{\mathcal{O}(#1)} \newcommand{\x}{\boldsymbol{x}} \newcommand{\X}{\boldsymbol{X}} \renewcommand{\u}{\boldsymbol{u}} \renewcommand{\v}{\boldsymbol{v}} \newcommand{\w}{\boldsymbol{w}} \newcommand{\V}{\boldsymbol{V}} \newcommand{\e}{\boldsymbol{e}} \newcommand{\f}{\boldsymbol{f}} \newcommand{\q}{{q}} \newcommand{\residual}{r} \newcommand{\dfc}{\alpha} % diffusion coefficient \newcommand{\Ix}{\mathcal{I}_x} \newcommand{\Iy}{\mathcal{I}_y} \newcommand{\Iz}{\mathcal{I}_z} \newcommand{\If}{\mathcal{I}_s} % for FEM \newcommand{\Ifd}{{I_d}} % for FEM \newcommand{\Ifb}{{I_b}} % for FEM \newcommand{\sequencei}[1]{\left\{ {#1}_i \right\}_{i\in\If}} \newcommand{\sequencej}[1]{\left\{ {#1}_j \right\}_{j\in\If}} \newcommand{\basphi}{\varphi} \newcommand{\baspsi}{\psi} \newcommand{\refphi}{\tilde\basphi} \newcommand{\psib}{\boldsymbol{\psi}} \newcommand{\sinL}[1]{\sin\left((#1+1)\pi\frac{x}{L}\right)} \newcommand{\xno}[1]{x_{#1}} \newcommand{\Xno}[1]{X_{(#1)}} \newcommand{\yno}[1]{y_{#1}} \newcommand{\xdno}[1]{\boldsymbol{x}_{#1}} \newcommand{\dX}{\, \mathrm{d}X} \newcommand{\dx}{\, \mathrm{d}x} \newcommand{\ds}{\, \mathrm{d}s} \newcommand{\Real}{\mathbb{R}} \newcommand{\Integer}{\mathbb{Z}}$$

# Introduction to Numerical Methods for Variational Problems

Hans Petter Langtangen [1, 2]
Kent-Andre Mardal [3, 1]

[1] Center for Biomedical Computing, Simula Research Laboratory
[2] Department of Informatics, University of Oslo
[3] Department of Mathematics, University of Oslo

This easy-to-read book introduces the basic ideas and technicalities of least squares, Galerkin, and weighted residual methods for solving partial differential equations. Special emphasis is put on finite element methods.