Key to Cortinarius subgenus Dermocybe

In the Nordic countries

Cortinariales - Basidiomycota

Colour on young gills yellow, olivaceous, or orange

Colour on young gills red, red brown, or carmine red

Colour on gills yellow as young, but more rust brown with age.

Spores small, usually not longer than 9.5 micrometer. Spores large, some spores longer than 10 micrometer.

small spores

Medium sized. Cap usually 3-5 cm diam., yellow brown to red brown. Stipe yellow with or without brown veil belts (var. porphyrovelatus (Mos.)). Very variable species. In very different vegetation types all over the Nordic countries exept from the highest mountains and the arctic islands: Cortinarius croceus (Schaeff.) S.F. Gray

Medium sized. Cap strongly fibrillose to scaly, red brown. Gills soon yellow orange. In alpine areas, often on ridges with Betula nana or Salix spp. and often lichens. Common in the Scandes, especially in the low alpine region in continetal areas: Cortinarius norvegicus Hil.

Big. Cap usually more than 5 cm diam, sometimes over 10 cm, pale yellow brown to orange brown. Gills first clear yellow then warm yellow, sometimes orange yellow. Stipe yellow with no or only traces of veil rests. Usually in lush birch and spruce forests from the mid to north boreal region, seldom in the lowlands: Cortinarius sylvae-norvegicae Hil.

LARGE SPORES

Cap red, brick red, to red brown

Cap yellow, olivaceous, to brown

Cap red

Cap vivid red to brick red, umbonate to acute, often silky fibrillose. Stipe with red veil belts. On moist ground under Salix or sometimes Alnus, often in swamps or along riversides. Mostly in the lowlands, but extends up to the low alpine regions in lush Salix scrubs: Cortinarius uliginosus Berk.

Cap red brown, umbonate to acute, fibrillose to squamulose, but not silky. Stipe with red brown, waek veil rests. On moist ground in coniferous or birch forests up to the north boreal region: Cortinarius croceoconus Fr.

Very similar to the former, but the cap is more obtuse. Ecologically different, appearing in meadows, heathlands, and sand dunes. Often it is recorded with no potential woody ectomycorrhizal plant. Oceanic distribution along the west coast of Norway, on the Faeroes, and probably also Iceland: Cortinarius pratensis (Bon & Gaugu) Hil.

Cap yellow

Lower part (half to quarter) of stipe orange

Not so

Orange stipe base

Cap oliavaceous yellow to olivaceous yellow brown, usually umbonate and felty. Gills always with an olivaceous tint. Stipe slender. In deep, moist moss in poor coniferous or birch forests. Widespread, but not common: Cortinarius bataillei (Favre ex Mos.) Hil.

Stipe base not orange

Cap yellow to pale yellow brown, usually umbonate to acute. Stipe slender. On moist ground under Salix or sometimes Alnus. Most frequent from the northern boreal to the low arctic-alpine region, but may occur in the lowlands: Cortinarius cinnamomeoluteus Orton The yellow form of Cortinarius uliginosus f. luteus (Gabriel & Lamoure) Nezpiak is similar, but has a more ochraceous yellow colour.

Cap brown, soon expanded, obtuse. Stipe short, usually as long as the cap diameter. Under dwarf Salix, S. herbacea or S. polaris. Only in arctic-alpine regions, frequently the mid arctic-alpine region. Common on Svalbard and the more arctic parts of Greenland, seldom in Fennoscandia or Iceland: Cortinarius polaris Hil.

Cap brown, convex, obtuse. Stipe slender. On moist, swampy ground among mosses, frequently Sphagnum, but also other mosses. Usually under Betula or Picea: Cortinarius huronensis Ammirati & Smith var. luteofolius Ammirati & Smith

Colour on gills olivaceous as young, but more brown with age

Spores small, usually not longer than 9 micrometer; on dry, rich ground. Spores large, some spores longer than 10 micrometer; on wet, poor ground.

small spores

Cap umbonate, olivacous brown. Gills emarginate. Stipe with brown veil rests. On calcareous ground in deciduous or rich spruce forests. Rare, only in south-eastern Fennoscandia and Denmark. Nemoral to boreo-nemoral distribution: Cortinarius olivaceofuscus Khn.

LARGE SPORES

Cap dark brown. Gills distinctly olivaceous, even as young. Basidia with yellow content viewed in KOH. Usually in deep Sphagnum, sometimes among other mosses, in poor pine forests. More seldom under spruce or birch. Most frequent in south to mid boreal regions in continental areas: Cortinarius huronensis Ammirati & Smith var. huronensis

Cap red brown to yellow brown. Gills pale olivaceous yellow as young. Basidia without yellow content viewed in KOH. Always in Sphagnum in poor mires under birch, spruce, or pine. Most frequent in south to north boreal regions in continental areas: Cortinarius tubarius Ammirati & Smith

Colour on gills orange as young, but more rust brown with age

Spores smooth and nearly cylindrical

Spores verrucose and more ovate

Smooth, cylindrical spores

Very rare species, only found one or few times in South Sweden in sandy pine forest. More common in North America. Perhaps introduced to Sweden: Cortinarius aureifolius Peck

Verrucose, ovate spores

Cap with orange yellow margin, flesh oliavaceous

Not so

Cap with yellow margin, flesh olivaceous

Cap with orange yellow veil remnatns at margin. Stipe covered with orange yellow veil rests. Flesh distinctly olivaceous green. Usually in relatvely rich spruce forests, often with some Alnus, scattered up to the south boreal region, most frequent in the south-eastern parts: Cortinarius malicorius Fr.

Cap without yellow margin, flesh usually yellow, orange, brown, or ochraceous

Spores small, usually not longer than 9 micrometer. Spores large, some spores longer than 10 micrometer.

small spores

Young gills bright or vivid orange. Cap without concentrical zones.

Young gills dull orange ( a brownish tinge). Cap with dark concentric zones.

Young gills orange

Cap orange brown to red brown, without concentric zones. Stipe yellow with or without brown veil belts. Common in young, growing up spruce or pine forests, often on roadsides or in paths, sometimes under birch. Frequent up to the mid boreal region, more seldom in the north boreal region: Cortinarius cinnamomeus (L.: Fr.) S.F. Gray

Young gills dull orange

Cap dull brown with distinct, concentric zones, often weakly hygrophaneous. Stipe with dark brown or grey brown veil remnants. In old, humid, mossy spruce forests with well developed humus layer, sometimes in deep needle litter in old spruce plantations. Not common, extends to the mid boreal region: Cortinarius sommerfeltii Hil.

Gills as well as the whole fruit body cinnabar red, cap hygrophaneous

Cap not hygrophaneous, colour usually darker red

Cap hygrophaneos

The entire fruit body vivid cinnabar red. In broadlaeved deciduous forests with Quercus or Fagus. South to south-eastern, nemoral to boreonemoral distribution. Only common in Denmark and southermost Sweden (frequent in Scania). Today removed from subgenus Dermocybe to subgenus Telamonia: Cortinarius cinnabarinus Fr.

Cap hygrophaneous. Cap not hygrophaneous.

Cap hygrophaneous

Cap dark brown to purple brown. Gills carmine to purple. Stipe often somewhat violet at top. Hyphae of cap cuticle with red incrustation. Usually in broad leaved deciduous forests with Quercus or Fagus. South to south-western, somewhat coastal distribution in the nemoral to boreonemoral regions. Not common. Found north to Mre og Romsdal in Norway. Today removed from subgenus Dermocybe to subgenus Telamonia: Cortinarius anthracinus (Fr.) Fr. - A relative is Cortinarius danicus Hil. with brown incrustation on cap hyphae. It is hitherto only found in old oak-beech-forests in South Denmark.

Cap not hygrophaneous

The whole fruit body dark red to carmine

Only gills red (to rust red)

The whole fruit body red

Mycelial felt at base of stipe orange. Veil orange. Cap felty to somewhat scaly - at least when young. Usually in dense, moist, old spruce forests, but may also occur in spruce plantations, or under oak. Lowland distribution up to the mid boreal zone. Most frequent east of the Scandes: Cortinarius sanguineus (Wulf.: Fr.) S.F. Gray var. sanguineus

Mycelial felt at base of stipe rose to pale red with no shade of yellow. Veil red. Cap smooth, often silky fibrillose. More or less the same ecology as the former, but less frequent and probably more southern: Cortinarius sanguineus var. vitiosus (Mos.)

Only gills (and base or veil) red

Gills deep red brown, mahogany red (always with a brownish tint)

Gills blood red, carmine red, greyish red (never with a brownish tint)

Gills with a brownish tint. Mycelial felt at base orange or yellow.

Cap dark mahogany to red brown. Stipe often covered with red to red brown veil rests, but never in belts. Mycelial felt at stipe base orange to yellow. Prefers medium rich to rich, mesic coniferous forests, usually spruce forests. Lowland distribution up to the mid boreal zone. Hitherto not found west of the Scandes: Cortinarius fervidus Orton

Gills red (never with a brownish tint, at least as young). Mycelial felt at base pale red to rose.

Stipe with red veil belts. Cap reddish, mahogany red brown, to dark red brown. Prefers medium rich to poor coniferous forest, usually spruce, but also pine. Lowland distribution up to the south boreal zone, more rare in the mid boreal zone. Not common, most frequent east of the Scandes: Cortinarius phoeniceus (Bull. ex Ventenat) Maire

Stipe without red veil belts, only pale red to rose at base. Cap yellow brown to olivaceous brown. Prefers poor, sandy ground in pine forest or open spruce forests, sometimes also under Betula. Common up to the north boreal zone, some years very abundant: Cortinarius semisanguineus (Fr.: Fr.) Fr.