Oddbjørn Leirvik:

 

Knowing by Oneself,

Knowing with the Other:

Al-damîr, Human Conscience
and Christian-Muslim Relations

 

Oslo: Unipub/Acta Theologica, 2002


Contents:
 

INTRODUCTION                                                          

 

1          HORIZON AND FOCUS   

                       

1.1       Theology in dialogue

1.2       Genesis, focus and organisation of this thesis

 

2          TERMS, CONCEPTS AND METHODS                         

 

2.1       Terms and concepts

            2.1.1    Conscience, and al-damîr

            2.1.2    Modernity

            2.1.3    Authenticity

2.2       Clues to current debates

            2.2.1    Selfhood and otherness: the capitalised Other

            2.2.2    Universalism and communitarianism 

2.3       Methodological perspectives

            2.3.1    Conceptual history and discourse analysi

            2.3.2    Intertextuality, dialogical imagination and diapractice

 

PART ONE:  Christian conscience and Islamic ethics

 

3          THE SELF AND THE OTHER IN CHRISTIAN

            AND EUROPEAN DISCOURSES OF CONSCIENCE              

 

3.1       Some fundamental ambiguities in the notion of conscience                                       

3.2       Syneídêsis in the New Testament:

            knowing with the Christian Self or with the religiously Other?                    

3.3       Syneídêsis / syneidós and conscientia in Graeco-Roman literature                

3.4       Syneídêsis, synderesis and conscientia in Patristic theologies           

3.5       Conscientia and synteresis (synderesis) in Scholastic theology                     

3.6       Conscientia from the Middle Ages to early modernity:

            casuistic knowing with the church, or transmoral insight?                

3.7       Conscience and reformation   

            3.7.1    Crisis of conscience and freedom of conscience in Luther                 

            3.7.2    Conscience and the inward and outward world in Calvin                  

3.8       Enlightenment and Romantic views of conscience: autonomy

            and authenticity, social contract and freedom of conscience             

            3.8.1    New semantic and conceptual emphases in early modernity            

            3.8.2    Conscience in English: moral sense and the case for virtue               

            3.8.3    Conscience in French: self-discovery and authenticity,

                        social contract and freedom of conscience                 

            3.8.4    Conscience in German: enlightened-autonomous,

                        romantic-authentic, or social-otherdirected?              

3.9       Some notes on conscience in 20th-century psychology,
            philosophy, and theology                  

3.10     Christian, European or universal?

            Conscience in modern human rights discourses, and in Gandhi                    

3.11     Preliminary conclusion                      

 

4          ISLAMIC ETHICS – KNOWING WITH WHOM?                    

 

4.1       Bridging "conscience" and "Islamic ethics"           

4.2       What is Islamic ethics ?                     

4.3       Islamic ethics as a multi-layered tradition     

            4.3.1    Qur ânic ethics: concepts, genres, intertextuality               

            4.3.2    Duty and virtue ethics in the Prophetic traditions (Hadîth)             

            4.3.3    Islamic law as prescriptive ethics: universal or communitarian?                   

            4.3.4    Theological ethics in Islam and the fight about rationalism               

            4.3.5    Philosophical ethics in Islam: universalist humanism?                      

            4.3.6    Sûfî ethics and the turn inwards                    

4.3.7    Narrative religious ethics in Islam: al-Ghazâlî           

4.3.8    Where does classical Islamic ethics end?

4.4       Conscience, science and civilisation in European Christianity and Islam                  

4.5       Preliminary conclusion                      

 

INTERLUDE: The semantics of damîr

 

5          CONSCIENCE IN ARABIC: THE SEMANTICS OF DAMÎR              

 

5.1       ”Conscience”  in modern Arabic                   

5.2       Damîr in classical and medieval Arabic,

            and in medieval/early modern Arabic dictionaries                 

            5.2.1    Damîr in Shî‘ite, Sûfî and philosophical/secular usage

            5.2.2    Damîr in grammar and logical theory            

            5.2.3    Damîr in early dictionaries, Arab and Western                     

5.3       Damîr as moral consciousness – since when?

5.4       Damîr in biblical Arabic

            5.4.1    Damîr in medieval and early modern Arabic Bible language

            5.4.2    Damîr in modern Arabic Bible editions

5.5       Other words and constructs for ”conscience”  in modern Arabic

5.6       Preliminary conclusion

 

PART TWO:  Al-damîr in modern Egyptian Muslim authors

 

6          THE NOTIONS OF AL-DAMÎR AND WIJDÂN

            IN EGYPTIAN REFORMERS AND WRITERS

 

6.1       Introduction to Part Two

6.2       Damîr and the reception of French thought

            and European philosophy in Egypt

6.3       Damîr and wijdân among Egyptian reformers, ca. 1900-1925

6.4       Literary reflections of damîr in modern Egyptian essays and fiction,

            ca. 1950-1975

6.5       Preliminary conclusion

 

7          ‘ABBÂS MAHMÛD AL-‘AQQÂD (1889-1964):

ETHICO-RELIGIOUS INTERNALISATION,

HUMAN CONSCIENCE AND ISLAMIC APOLOGETICS

 

7.1       Biographical and bibliographical introduction

7.2       Al-damîr in al-Aqqâd’s spiritual portraits   

            7.2.1    The genius of Muhammad, and his upright conscience

            7.2.2    Between Muhammad and Christ: Mahatma Gandhi

            7.2.3    The genius of Christ, and his law of love and conscience

            7.2.4    The genius of the Islamic philosopher-reformer

            7.2.5    Narrative and discursive approaches to al-damîr

7.3       Conscience, democracy and Islamic authenticity

7.4       Revelation, reason and conscience in al-Aqqâd’s qur’ânic philosophy

            7.4.1    Qur’ânic philosophy, new morality and conservative elitism

            7.4.2    Conscience under the guardianship of reason

            7.4.3    Conscience, mysticism and existentialism

7.4.4    The role of conscience in al-Aqqâd’s qur’ânic anthropology

7.5       Preliminary conclusion and outlook

7.6       Al-Aqqâd, internalisation and authenticity

             – as seen by Uthmân Amîn and Hasan Hanafî

 

8          KHÂLID MUHAMMAD KHÂLID (1920-1996):

            CONSCIENCE, HUMAN AUTHENTICITY

            AND ISLAMIC DEMOCRACY

 

8.1       Biographical and bibliographical introduction

8.2       Secularism and European impulses

            8.2.1    Modernist, secularist beginnings: From here we start

            8.2.2    Conscience, new morality and civic ethics

8.3       Visions of true humanity

8.4       Al-damîr in the history of religions:

            a continuous quest for human authenticity

            8.4.1    Muhammad and Christ, together on the road

            8.4.2    The human qualities of Muhammad

            8.4.3    Human conscience on its journey towards its destiny

8.5       Al-damîr and the Islamic heritage:

            narrative, thematic and mystical approaches

            8.5.1    Narrative approaches to distinguished Muslim personalities

            8.5.2   Thematic approach to the humanist message of the Qur ân

            8.5.3    Sûfî perspectives on human conscience

8.6       From human to Islamic authenticity?

            8.6.1    From universalist liberalism to Islamic democracy

            8.6.2    The final call:

                        Islam invites the human race to accept Muhammad

8.7       Preliminary conclusion and outlook

8.8       Excursus: Conscience and Islamic authenticity in Sayyid Qutb

 

9          M. KÂMIL HUSAYN (1901-1977):

            CONSCIENCE AS THE LAW OF INHIBITION

            AND THE VOICE OF GOD

 

9.1       Biographical and bibliographical introduction

9.2       The events of Good Friday as a drama of human conscience

9.3       Conscience as a curb and the law of inhibition

9.4       The passive virtues of resistance, and the individual’s right to say no

9.5       Conscience as the voice of God, and one’s rightly guided self
9.6       The guidance of religion: an inclusivist view

9.7       Preliminary conclusion and outlook  

 

10        CHRISTIANS AND MUSLIMS IN EGYPT:
UNITED OR SEPARATED BY MODERNITY?

 

10.1     Modern Muslim identity in Egypt

            10.1.1 Recurrent crises of orientation ,

                        or a continuum of modified Islamic discourses ?

            10.1.2  Islamic discourses and universalist visions under Nasser

10.2     Christianity and Islam in modern Egypt

10.3     Modern Coptic identity

10.3.1  The discourse of national unity:

                        mere secularism, or Christian recognition of Islam?

            10.3.2  Coptic conscience

            10.3.3  The discourse of Coptic revival:

                        national unity challenged by the religious body?

10.4     Late modern identity discourses among Muslims,

            and the notion of Islamic authenticity

 

11        CONCLUSIONS TO PART TWO

 

 

PART THREE: Concluding discussions

        

12        WRONGING THE SELF, WRONGING THE OTHER:

            CONSCIENCE AND ETHICS IN MODERNITY

 

12.1     Conscience and the inward turn forwards

12.2     The Christian-Muslim quest for self-improvement

            a shared but insufficient moral concern

12.3     Conscience, reason and emotion in the modern Self

12.4     Being true to the Other –

            guided by the Golden Rule, or by the ethics of closeness?

12.5     Wronging Oneself or wronging the Other?

12.6     Bad conscience and “the reproaching soul”

 

13        CONSCIENCE IN INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE:

            TELLING THE STORY OF ONESELF AS ANOTHER

 

13.1     The turn to the Other

13.2     Islam and the religously Other

13.3     Conscience = knowing oneself as another?

13.4     Telling the story of oneself as another – in diapractice

13.5     Communitarianism and universalism – in Egypt and Norway

 

14        KNOWING WITH GOD

            – FACE TO FACE WITH THE OTHER?              

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY