Robbie Andrew

scholar orcid twitter
CICERO Center for International Climate ResearchHome   |   About me   |   Contact me

Global Carbon Budget 2017


Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models.

The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of our imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ.

For the last decade available (2007-2016), EFF was 9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.6 GtC yr-1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1. Also for 2016, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM was 6.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 and SLAND was 2.7 ± 1.0 GtC yr-1, with a small BIM of -0.3 GtC. GATM continued to be higher in 2016 compared to the past decade (2007-2016), reflecting in part the higher fossil emissions and smaller SLAND for that year consistent with El Niño conditions. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 402.8 ± 0.1 ppm averaged over 2016.

For 2017, preliminary data indicate a renewed growth in EFF of +2.0% (range of 0.8% to 3.0%) based on national emissions projections for China, USA, and India, and projections of Gross Domestic Product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. For 2017, initial data indicate an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration of around 5.3 GtC (2.5 ppm), attributed to a combination of increasing emissions and receding El Niño conditions.

This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2016; 2015b; 2015a; 2014; 2013). All results presented here can be downloaded from
open access This article is available without charge

Global Carbon Budget Figures

Every year the Global Carbon Project publishes a number of figures demonstrating the latest global carbon budget, and these are freely available for use in a number of formats.Learn more »

Warning signs

For the last three years, emissions were stable, despite continuing growth in the global economy. However, the temporary hiatus appears to have ended in 2017. Learn more »

Real-time verification of emissions

The Paris Agreement has increased the incentive to verify reported emissions with independent Earth system observations. Reliable verification requires a step change in our understanding of carbon cycle variability.Learn more »

Web design by Robbie Andrew