Simulations of magnetohydrodynamics and CO formation from the convection zone to the chromosphere
Although the largest absolute amount of CO is located in the middle photosphere, CO is also abundant in the layers above and binds a large fraction of carbon. An exception are the hot propagating shock waves that frequently dissociate the carbon monoxide molecules.
These shock waves, which are a ubiquitous phenomenon in the model
chromosphere, also shape the magnetic field of these layers. As a
result the chromosphere is characterised by highly dynamic magnetic
filaments that are formed in the compression zone behind and along
shocks. Nevertheless, the magnetic field in the chromosphere is much
more homogeneous than in the photosphere below, resulting in a
dynamic small-scale 'canopy' at the boundary of these layers.
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