Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference on Chromospheric and Coronal Magnetic Fields, 30 August - 2 September 2005, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany, eds. D. Innes, A. Lagg, S. Solanki, D. Danesy, ESA SP-596, 117-122, 2005

Sven Wedemeyer-Böhm (Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstrasse 6, 79104 Freiburg, Germany)
Werner Schaffenberger (Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstrasse 6, 79104 Freiburg, Germany)
Oskar Steiner (Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstrasse 6, 79104 Freiburg, Germany)
Matthias Steffen (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany)
Bernd Freytag (Los Alamos National Laboratory/Depart. of Phys. and Astron. at Michigan State University, USA)
Inga Kamp (Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore MD 21218, USA)

Simulations of magnetohydrodynamics and CO formation from the convection zone to the chromosphere

We present the results of simulations of the formation and the evolution of carbon monoxide (CO) and of magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere, extending from the convection zone to the middle chromosphere. The radiation hydrodynamics code CO5BOLD has been extended to a magnetohydrodynamics version. Furthermore, the time-dependent treatment of chemical reaction networks has been added. Next to the time-dependent solution of the reaction network, the code accounts for the advection of the resulting particle number densities with the hydrodynamic flow field.

Although the largest absolute amount of CO is located in the middle photosphere, CO is also abundant in the layers above and binds a large fraction of carbon. An exception are the hot propagating shock waves that frequently dissociate the carbon monoxide molecules.

These shock waves, which are a ubiquitous phenomenon in the model chromosphere, also shape the magnetic field of these layers. As a result the chromosphere is characterised by highly dynamic magnetic filaments that are formed in the compression zone behind and along shocks. Nevertheless, the magnetic field in the chromosphere is much more homogeneous than in the photosphere below, resulting in a dynamic small-scale 'canopy' at the boundary of these layers.

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